Category Archives: Political reform

President meets with Beltrones on legislative agenda

President Calderón met with PRI Senate leader Manlio Fabio Beltrones to discuss the legislative agenda. The meeting marks a sharp break from the hostile interchanges between the Government and the PRI in the run-up to the elections–and the day after PRI party president Beatriz Paredes said, “We will negotiate nothing.” According to the Bajo Reserva column:

A bridge has opened. After the big confrontations with the PRI, Felipe Calderón met yesterday with the PRI Senate leader, Manlio Fabio Beltrones. And this was no casual encounter.  It was in [the presidential residence] Los Pinos. It’s known that they talked about the obvious: the pending structural reforms, insecurity, impunity, the war against the narcos, the urgent need for dialogue among the political forces. What isn’t known if they talked about the distancing of the President from the priistas, which dates from November 2009 and which flared up again a few days before July 4th. Why Senator Beltrones and not Beatriz Paredes? This question encapsulates, among many other things, just how things are: Is the President now operating as his own Secretary of Government?

Scorecard: Congress ends session without passing any major legislation

Congress recessed until September 1 without passing any of the pending reform proposals. (Universal 5/1, Reforma 5/1)

Political reform: President Calderón put forward his 10-point reform last December, followed by the PRI’s package in February, and a PRD version. All of these, plus others, languish in the legislative commissions without any consensus.

Labor reform: Labor Secretary Javier Lozano proposed a comprehensive reform in March to make labor contracting rules more flexible and making unions more transparent and democratic. It is strongly supported by the business community.  May Day marches by the major labor unions across the country attacked the proposed legislation, and neither house has yet voted. (Universal 5/2)

Fiscal reform: No specific proposals have been made public, despite widespread recognition that urgent change is needed on both the spending and revenue side of the budget.

New media law: The PAN and PRD congressional delegations proposed an integrated reform in mid-April, after the PRI tried to ram through a Televisa-drafted bill. Hearings will continue over the summer. (Universal 4/28)

National Security reform: The Senate approved a law 105-1-1 clarifying the procedures and standards for deploying the military in public safety (i.e., crime fighting) operations, while punting on the question of subjecting members of the military to civilian court jurisdiction for some crimes. The law as passed is believed to be strongly opposed by at least parts of the military. The Chamber did not bring it to a vote. (Universal 4/28, 5/3)

Competition law: A watered down version of the Government’s proposed law to strengthen the Federal Competition Commission and stiffen penalties for monopolistic practices was passed by the Chamber 386-15-2; the Senate has not acted. (Excelsior 4/30)

Human Rights law: A constitutional reform strengthening constitutional protection for human rights and giving the language in the Constitution and giving the National Human Rights Commission (CNDH) the power to investigate “grave violations of individual rights” passed the Senate in early April. The Chamber has not yet acted.  (Universal 4/9)

Congress moves into final weeks of legislative session

With just six sessions remaining until the April 30th recess, Congress is expected to vote on a number of pending reforms and other legislation. Competition law reform and a new national security law are measures likely to come to a vote. The government is pressing for movement on political reform, but its fate seems uncertain without a consensus in the legislative commissions.  In an op-ed, PAN party president César Nava said that the political reform should have at least five key elements: cut public financing for parties in half; reduce the size of Congress; give the federal electoral institute and federal electoral tribunal responsibility for organizing and adjudicating state and local races; allow independent candidates; and permit immediate re-election of congressmen and mayors. (Universal 4/18, 4/19, Excelsior 4/19)

Congress recesses, leaving packed post-Easter agenda

Congress got an early start on the long Holy Week vacation, as the Senate failed to get a quorum for its last scheduled session. The Senate leadership, headed by PAN Senator Gustavo Madero, invoked ‘fast track’ rules to speed key legislation during the final month of the Congressional session, from April 6-30.  On the agenda are 68 pieces of legislation covering 13 reform initiatives. The legislation is in four broad areas: national security, political reform, public safety, and internal regulation of the Senate.  (Excelsior 3/29, Reforma 3/25, Universal 3/29)

The PRI/Beltrones political reform package

The PRI submitted their own political reform package in February. This summary is taken from Senator Manlio Fabio Beltrones‘  exposition of the package in an op-ed in El Universal:

1. Give the Secretary of Government the authority to exercise Executive power, in the absence or incapacity of the President, until Congress acts to fill the vacancy.

2. Senate ratification for all cabinet officers, except the Secretaries of Army and Navy, as well as the heads of state agencies.

3. Eliminate proportional representation seats in the Senate, and reduce the size of the Chamber of Deputies to 400–300 direct election seats, and 100 proportional election seats.

4. Allow for the immediate re-election of federal and state legislators.  Senators eligible to be re-elected once (total 12 years), and Deputies twice (total nine years).

5. Call the ordinary commissions of Congress into session 30 days prior to the opening of the regular congressional session, to prepare draft legislation. Dock the pay of congressmen who miss commission meetings without a valid excuse.

6. Require the President to present his Informe in person to Congress, and establish procedures for comment and reply by the different parties and the Executive.

7. Require that unspent budget funds be returned for reallocation the following year, rather than be spent at the discretion of the executive.

8. Speed final review of public accounts, eliminate secret budgets, give new powers to the Superior Auditor of the Federation.

9. Establish referendums on issues of national importance.

10. Give autonomy to the Public Prosecutor’s Office (Ministerio Público).

11. Restrict constitutional immunity for public officials to official acts.

12. Give the human rights commission (CNDH) power to investigate grave violations of individual rights.

13. Implement methods for conciliation or arbitration between the states for boundary disputes.

14. Require that any suspension of rights and guarantees be ratified by Congress, and reviewed by the Supreme Court.

15. Create a National Identify Institute, to issue identity documents.

Senate president predicts passage of political reform this session

Senate president Carlos Navarrete (PRD) predicted that the Senate will pass a political reform package during March, in order to send it to the Chamber of Deputies for its vote before the session ends on April 30th. Navarrete said that with the PRD-PT-Convergencia proposal (submitted last week) and the PRI proposal (expected this week), along with President Calderón’s proposal sent down in December there was plenty of material to begin preparing draft legislation.  The PRD political reform proposal consists of 12 major points, including congressional ratification of cabinet officers and recall elections for the President, governors, and mayors, that are in sharp contrast to the President’s proposed reform package (which most analysts believe would strengthen the executive). (Universal 2/20, PRD Senate 2/18)

New website for political reform

The Ministry of Government has launched a new website, www.reformapolitica.gob.mx, to lay out the government’s proposals for political reform. The site includes space for citizen comment, a library of various useful documents on political reform, information on public forums on the reform, and a variety of other materials.

PRI promises own political reform package

The Senate started hearings on the President’s political reform package, with testimony from a broad range of academics. PRI Senate leader Beltrones said that the PRI would introduce its own political reform package in the first half of February. “We will present an initiative that … seeks to bring about a true reform that works,” he said. In response, Government Secretary Fernando Gómez Mont acknowledged the PRI’s role: “I believe that the PRI is a fundamental part of the reform effort; it can’t happen without the PRI, and the PRI shouldn’t be left outside the [discussion] space for the political, economic and social change that Mexico demands.” (Reforma 1/29, Excelsior 1/30)

Poll: Public backs political reform in general, but level of knowledge is low

An El Universal national telephone poll showed broad support for the concept of political reform (89% approval) and President Calderón’s proposal (69% approval). However, there is a low level of actual knowledge – only 20% said they knew the specifics of Calderón’s proposal.  Of the specific proposals, reducing the size of Congress had the highest support, and reelection the lowest. (Universal 1/24)

Castañeda and Aguilar Camín: A Future for Mexico

The Mexico Institute of the Wilson Center has posted an English version of an extended essay by Jorge Castañeda and Héctor Aguilar Camín entitled A Future for Mexico.  The original was published in Nexos. From the essay:

Mexico is a prisoner of its History. Inherited ideas, sentiments and interests keep Mexico from swiftly moving to the place yearned for by its citizens. The history that has been logged in our national psyche—in its laws, its institutions, its habits, and fantasies—obstructs the country’s future trajectory. It has been famously observed that politicians are held hostage by dead economists. Similarly, public life in Mexico is held hostage by the decisions of its dead Presidents, by the political inheritance of statism and corporatism that we call “revolutionary nationalism” and is sheltered by that mythical acronym—PRI—that today is both a minority party and the reigning political culture.

Mexico needs to be emancipated from its past. It could achieve this through democratic means, making the 2012 election a referendum on its future. What follows is a proposal for that future, to be debated and hopefully included in a platform and voted for in 2012, so that year’s elections not merely be about individuals or parties, but also about the prosperous, egalitarian, and democratic country Mexicans want: a middle class society indistinguishable from others around the globe.

The full version is here.